Osiyo! Welcome to my research page. My name is Darren McCathern. I am a member of the advisory board of the WorldGenWeb, and have worked on several projects in an effort to help others find their roots.
Genealogy is very close to my heart. It is my hope that our people will find that vital piece of information that will bring them closer to their heritage and will enable us to unite and gather our families as a way to honor our ancestors.
I am happy to announce that I am offering lookups on several important Cherokee Census Rolls to help assist you in your research.
Searching for answers can sometimes be very difficult and confusing with all of the different records available. Many people descended from the Tsalagi are not able to prove their connection due to the absence of written documentation.
One of the contributing factors is a lack of evidence. This stems from historical events that forced many people to move from one place to another to avoid problems that took place in the past.
So let's review some of the events that have made our quest so difficult. To gain a perspective of the mindset of our ancestors, let's attempt to walk in their moccasins and try and trace the footsteps of our people.
The Ani-Yun-Wiya once inhabited great expanses of lands on the American continent, and our earliest ancestors were known to control the majority of vital waterways throughout the times prior to the establishment of the colonies.
The Ani-Yun-Wiya was known to exercise dominion over all the territory on the east side of the Alleghany Mountains, including the headwaters of the Yadkin, Catawba, Broad and Savannah Rivers and from there westward they claimed the land as far as the Ohio and from there to the headwaters of the Chattahoochee and Alabama.
According to early writers, the Principal People as they are known claimed that they arrived in their homeland after migrating from the west on the upper waters of the Ohio where they had errected the mounds on Grave Creek.
They then gradually moved eastward across the Alleghany mountains to the neighborhood of Monticello, VA, and along the Appomattox River.
From here they were reported to have moved into Tennessee Country around 1623 where the Virginians attacked them and massacred all throughout the colony. After this event, the Ani-Yun-Wiya then lived in settlements along the New River, including founding a village at the headwaters of the Holston.
As a result of constant warfare, the people moved to the Little Tennessee where they began establishing towns that became known as the Middle Settlements.
Another group reportedly came from the area of Charleston SC, and settled lower down the Tennessee. These people were known as the Ketawanga and were the last to come into the country.
In a petition presented to Congress on behalf of the Delaware in 1819, they spoke of a tradition among their people concerning the Ani-Yun-Wiya.
The legend had been handed down from their ancestors that many thousands of moons ago before the white man came over the great water, that the Lenni Lenape lived on the banks of the Delaware River where they enjoyed many years of peace and prosperity.
During this time of peace and prosperity, the Ani-Yun-Wiya, Nanticokes and some other Nation whose name has been forgotten were envious of the Delaware, and came from the south with a great army and made war upon them.
This army vanquished the Delaware and drove them to an island in the river. The Lenape quickly requested the assistance of the Mohicans who came to their relief and the invaders were defeated with a great slaughter and put to flight.
The invaders at this time then sued for peace, and it was granted with the condition that they should go home to their families and never again make war upon the Lenni Lenape or their allies.
These terms were agreed to and the Ani-Yun-Wiya and Nanticokes forever remained faithful to the treaty.
Pretty neat legend! As a researcher and a descendant, I truly enjoy the stories among Native people, they are by far some of the most interesting tales of anyone in the world. :o)
The first known contacts to have taken place between the Ani-Yun-Wiya and the Europeans were the expeditions of DeSoto in the 1540's which resulted in massive epidemics that decimated the tribe. Most conservative estimates agree that at least 1/2 of Tsalagi living at the time of the arrival of the Europeans died due to disease after contact with the Spanish.
The Ani-Yun-Wiya, because of their mountain homes, had sporadic and limited contact with the Europeans which was more or less comprised of small trade when the very first colonies were established. This contact rapidly increased as the Newcomers began to explore and discover the richness and beauty of the lands under their control.
This lust and greed for land by the arriving Europeans soon resulted in their settlement of lands belonging to the Ani-Yun-Wiya which eventually resulted in hostilities between the colonies and the Tribe.
In the year 1654, the English at Jamestowne and some Pamunkey associated with the Powhatan attacked the Tsalagi of Virginia who were known as the Rickahocken or the "Round Town People."
This first ever encounter in battle between the Ani-Yun-Wiya and the White Man resulted in the English and their allies being soundly defeated by the Tsalagi, who proved to be far superior in warfare than the colonists.
A peace then ensued where the English promised not to encroach on their lands, and the tribe for quite some time was left alone by the colonists, who no doubt never forgot receiving their stunning defeat at the hands of the The Principal People. :o)
Trade relations were eventually undertaken by the English in later years, and this indeed proved to be a difficult task. Extraordinary measures were required as means to establish trade between the Colonies and the Ani-Yun-Wiya due to complications arising from interference by the Occaneechi Tribe.
In 1670, a delegation of five Virginia Rickahokans visiting on tribal business were murdered during the festivities of a dance supposedly held in honor of their visit by the Occaneechi.
Apparently the Occaneechi had planned to murder the visitors the night before the peace delegation had even arrived. The diplomats were surprised unawares and killed during the dance festivities by their hosts.
This act earned the Occaneechi the reputation as being completely untrustworthy as a result of their having killed the peace delegation after the smoking of the pipe.
This act of treachery was followed by several other well known historical occurances where the English, desiring to engage in trade with the Ani-Yun-Wiya, were blockaded several times by the Occaneechi who desired to act as middlemen between the Tsalagi and the colonial traders.
Hostilities in the region reached the boiling point when a trader named James Needham was sent by the Colony of Virginia to conduct trade relations with the Tsalagi. Needham was in fact murdered by his Occaneechi guide after returning from making a treaty with those Ani-Yun-Wiya who were living over the Blue Ridge Mountains.
Trade was eventually established when the Virginians took action and broke the power of the Occaneechi who had refused to allow the English safe passage over the Blue Ridge.
In later years, most of these Occaneechi who are sometimes known as Saponi, moved north to Pennsylvania after the Iroquois had made a treaty.
One of the first major contacts between Colonists and the Ani-Yun-Wiya took place in 1693 when twenty headmen visited Charleston with proposals of friendship and requested the help of the Governor in operations against the Esau and Coosaw tribes who had captured and carried off some of their members.
These captives were then sold to colonial authorities for slavery. The headmen asked for help concerning this situation.
The Governor offered to protect the people from further trouble from these tribes, but told the leaders there was little that could be done about those who had previously been sold as slaves, as they had already been shipped to the West Indies, making the captives' rescue impossible.
In the early 1700's, the Ani-Yun-Wiya began moving further west of their traditional lands to both follow game and to avoid the settlers that were squatting on their hunting grounds. This migration westward placed them in conflict with other tribes which often resulted in hostilities.
In the year 1712, Tsalagi Warriors numbering 218 accompanied Coloniel Barnwell and fought against the Tuscarora which resulted in defeat for their tribe.
Around the year 1714, the Tsalagi & Chickasaws expelled the Shawnee from the Cumberland Area and used their lands for hunting grounds and a buffer between their two tribes.
Some years later this shared hunting land gained by the Ani-Yun-Wiya & Chickasaws resulted in a terrible war.
According to some historical reports, the Chickasaw apparently were victorious.
In later years when the United States sought to purchase this land, the U.S. Government was required to also compensate the Tsalagi for their part of this land.
In 1715, the Tsalagi allied with the Yamasee and also the Creeks and they declared war against the settlers of South Carolina.
It was at this time that Governor Robert Johnson of South Carolina took a census of the tribe where it was estimated that they had 30+ towns and a population of 11,210 and could muster no less than 4,000 warriors.
This number drastically was decreased in the year 1738 due to a smallpox epidemic which decimated the Ani-Yun-Wiya. At the time, it was sadly estimated that after the plague that year, the number of survivors was less then half of the population.
The first formal treaty with the English took place in 1721 which was an agreement of peace and commerce confirmed with the Governor of South Carolina. This was established by the smoking of the pipe and the presentation of gifts to delegates from 37 towns. Boundries were also confirmed and an agent was appointed to superintend their affairs.
It is well known in oral legend that many families crossed the Mississippi River sometime around 1721. Many have speculated these folks left at this time because of the internal conflict that this treaty apparently caused.
In 1730 the authorities of North Carolina sent Sir Alexander Cumming to make a treaty of alliance with the Tsalagi in which delegates then acknowledged King George as their Sovereign. This was followed by six headmen being taken to England to give homage to the crown in Europe.
These treaties angered many Ani-Yun-Wiya who began leaving for lands outside of the political influence of those who had allied themselves with the English, and some of these Tsalagi eventually supported the French in later years.
The people had long been known to have been living West of the Mississippi since the earliest times of French Occupation of the Louisiana Territory. The Ani-Yun-Wiya were a vital part of the trade for beaver furs and other important hides.
French Europeans out of Canada and the trading posts in the Gulf States supplied such things as trade cloth, guns and ammunition which eventually led to the establishment of places such as Arkansas Post at the Quapaw village of Osotouy.
The trade in this region was coveted by all the Europeans, and often these countries would attempt to incite tribes one against another as a means to control commerce.
On several occasions between 1740-1742, England attempted to encourage Tsalagi in the area to attack the French using the Mississippi River, however the Ani-Yun-Wiya in fact refused.
Some Tsalagi had ceased supporting the English during thier wars with the French around the year 1748 and began supporting France around 1754.
As a result of this alliance with the French, the Ani-Yun-Wiya literally controlled the Mississippi River and its tributaries in the territories claimed by France.
The increasing settlement of lands by the colonists was causing the People to seek lands further West continually. This then resulted in hostilities between the Tsalagi and the Creek for lands that together they had traditionally shared.
These hostilities then led to the Battle of Taliwa in 1755 in which a small band of Ani-Yun-Wiya under the leadership of Oconostota defeated a much larger band of Muscogee and took possession of land.
These lands in fact helped those who supported the British and were very valuable in the region for trade and commerce among the Ani-Yun-Wiya.
In 1755 the authorities in South Carolina for the purposes of trade documented the Ani-Yun-Wiya Villages under the following designations:
Also in 1755, the Ani-Yun-Wiya entered into a treaty with the English which ceded massive lands to South Carolina under Governor Glenn which included areas such as Abbeville, Edgefield, Laurens, Union, Spartenburg, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Richland and York.
In the year 1756, England officially declared war against France, and in this same year there was a council held at New Orleans, whereas the French promised that if the Tsalagi supported them during this war, that they would provide the means such as arms and other goods as a way to encourage them to make war against the English.
There were many battles and wars that took place during these times, and the Tsalagi fought in the great majority of these fights. Both the English and the French believed that the Ani-Yun-Wiya was key to securing victory on this continent.
In 1757 it was reported that Attacullaculla sold 15 square miles of land south of the Tennessee River to Captain Patrick Jack for a sum of four hundred dollars $400.
The majority of the Ani-Yun-Wiya supported France during these wars.
In 1760 the British took 28 people hostage which in turn resulted in warriors attacking Ft. Prince George where the hostages were being held.
After the warriors had killed the commander of the Fort, the British executed the hostages. Later that year, the tribe attacked Ft. Loudoun on the Little Tennessee River and killed all stationed there.
In 1760 the Ani-Yun-Wiya were allied with the French due to the hostilities between them and England. As a result, Governor Littleton of South Carolina marched against the Tsalagi and attacked their villages killing many which resulted in yet another treaty.
This treaty demanded of the Tsalagi to kill or imprison any and all Frenchmen who should come into their territory as long as England was at war with France.
Many still continued to fight the English which again resulted in several more battles.
At this time Colonal Grant began burning crops and destroyed no less than 15 towns. Then then led to the treaty of 1761 at Ashley Ferry later known as Charleston.
In 1763 Chief Pontiac who was an Ottawa Chief made war on the British and began what has become known as Pontiac's Rebellion. Runners were sent by the Shawnee to encourage the Ani-Yun-Wiya to join in the conflict. Despite the refusal of the leadership to officially support this war due to recent losses with the British, there were indeed many warriors who went north to fight.
On May 9th of 1763, Pontiac laid siege to Detroit with Ottawa's, Chippewa, Potawatomi, Huron, Shawnee, and Delawares. These then began an all out offensive against the British and soon had taken the great majority of the Forts West of the Allegheny Mountains.
Shawnee Chief Keigh-tugh-qua, or Cornstalk, led attacks on western Virginia settlements at this same time.
In August of 1763, British Colonel Henry Bouquet retaliated and destroyed Delaware and Shawnee forces at Bushy Run in western Pennsylvania, ending the hostilities.
In order to keep peace between the Natives and the settlers, King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763, prohibiting settlement west of the Allegheny Mountains.
The British eventually gained the upper hand on the continent after the ultimate defeat of the French & Tsalagi alliance, and peace eventually came to Europe between England, Spain & France in 1763 as a result of the Treaty of Paris.
In 1768 the Ani-Yun-Wiya were approached for a treaty and land purchase by Stuart the British Agent. This agreement was supposed to protect the people from further encroachments on their lands by settlers by fixing permanant boundries in the region of the North Fork of the Holston River and the headwaters of the Kanawha.
As a result of further encroachments on the lands established in the treaty of 1768, a new treaty and purchase was made with the Ani-Yun-Wiya in 1770 at Lochabar, South Carolina.
This again was promised to ensure protection of lands from encroaching settlers.
Another treaty quickly followed in 1772, offered by Virginia to secure defined boundries between the colony and the Ani-Yun-Wiya which was to run West from White Top Mountain.
This boundry left settlers west of this line within Ani-Yun-Wiya Territory.
This treaty resulted in these lands being leased for a period of eight years. The price was set for trade goods to be delivered that was equal to the amount of five or six thousand dollars for all the land on the Watauga River.
As a result of this lease, a deed was then drafted up by the settlers for this land in which an additional two thousand dollars was paid by the Watauga Settlers Association in the year 1775.
For the next few years under the guise of leasing lands, these crafty settlers began a series of bartering which resulted in even more land cessions.
In 1772, Jacob Brown traded a horse load of goods for a lease on a large tract of land on the Watauga & Nonachucky Rivers. He then purchased this land three years later for 10 shillings in which he was granted a deed which included additional property of a considerable size.
In 1773 another treaty was made with both the Tsalagi & Creeks by the British, where the signers ceded a large parcel of land to Great Britain located between the Broad and Oconee Rivers that included many miles of traditional hunting ground.
These treaties opened the door to what became known as the Henderson Purchase of 1775 which resulted in the Ani-Yun-Wiya becoming divided between the Traditionals who refused to honor these treaties, and the Civil Chiefs who had signed them.
These successive treaties and land purchases one after the other outraged the more traditional families and some began leaving to go westward. Some of these banded together and began undertaking raids upon the settlements that some held responsible for the loss of their homeland.
These circumstances in effect began many years of pitched hostilities between the soon to be emerging American Nation, and the Ani-Yun-Wiya. Many Tsalagi attempted to stay out of the conflict known as the Revolutionary War, yet many warriors joined up with the British as a way to raid those settlers who encroached on their traditional hunting lands.
European interests desiring their support carried on well through the Revolutionary War in so much that England supported the Tsalagi by supplying arms and encouraged the angry traditionals to attack American settlements as well as those who supported them.
The reason there was this unique relationship with the English was a result of several illegal treaties made by those colonists who favored revolution, which prompted them to quickly seek allies as a war looming with the colonies was clearly imminent.
Consequently, England later supported the great War Chief known as Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni or Dragging Canoe who was against the settlement of traditional lands by the colonists.
This hostility and anger towards the colonists was growing rapidly as a result of what Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni believed to be coersion and intrigue on behalf of those headmen making agreements that affected his homeland.
He in fact vowed to make war on the settlers in the event they attempted to settle on traditional hunting grounds. This willingness to raid the white man caused a split between the Civil leaders and the War Factions of the Ani-Yun-Wiya.
Many at the beginning of the Revolution in fact made an alliance with the Shawnee and began attacking Settlements.
Captain Robert Benge was among those Ani-Yun-Wiya who allied with the Shawnee and began making raids against white settlements and soon became famous as being among the most feared natives in colonial times.
During 1775, the British began to supply large amounts of guns and ammunition and offered bounties for American scalps.
This eventually gave way to a great many Ani-Yun-Wiya leaving the tribe forever.
Many of the Overhill Tsalagi soon began leading their people to the lower towns as a result of the continuing encroachments on their ancient lands in the Blue Ridge.
In the time just prior to the United States seeking independence from England, several treaties were signed that deeded massive areas of land that many greatly opposed.
These events opened up lands for settlement and thousands of white settlers arrived in droves that resulted in the wild game leaving, and the absolute destruction of Hunting Grounds used by many.
This angered the more traditional people to such an extent that war was declared by as a means to stop further encroachment by settlers.
As a result of these conditions, there was a division between those who believed that it was necessary to drive the settlers off the lands by war, and the headmen who were more partial to accepting the agreements they had signed.
During the course of these times many chose to leave and undertake raids as a means to resist the influx of settlers encroaching on their lands.
Many leaders believed that because of the signing of these treaties, that it would not be very long before all Ani-Yun-Wiya were forced off their land.
These leaders believed that they must remove to keep their culture in tact, and they believed that to capitulate to these treaties meant the absolute destruction of the Ani-Yun-Wiya.
The Civil Chiefs refused to support Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni and held fast to the idea that it was better to continue making treaties as a means to avoid further war with the whites that they believed would ultimately destroy the people.
The Civil leaders believed that the Ani-Yun-Wiya could not survive a prolonged war with the Americans.
As you can see, there was already a division taking place that was a direct result of these treaties. Some supported them, while others refused to comply.
This caused a split among the leaders whereas some resisted in war, and others supported those whom the Ani-Yun-Wiya resisted. It really was a no-win situation for many families.
Many traditionals, on the other hand, were disgusted at the placating of the whites and the politics of those headmen who desired to accept money for land in illegal treaties rather than to fight their enemies in battle.
They were very much against the settlement of their hunting grounds in Kentucky and elsewhere. The settlement of these lands had damaged their ability to trade and was forcing the people to depend more on agriculture as a means to feed their families.
This angered many warriors who believed it was better to fight the settlement of their lands by war rather than to be forced to relinquish their ancient ways which depended on hunting and war as an important part of society.
There was a political split taking place with the Ani-Yun-Wiya - Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni and others desired to fight, whereas honored leaders such as Groundhog Sausage opposed war entirely.
Those that followed Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni were of the opinion that the Civil leaders were selling out to the white man and they were becoming more and more angry at the continued requests to sell their lands.
The father of Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni was known as Little Carpenter or Attakullakulla and was instrumental in pursuading Groundhog Sausage and other leaders to accept the terms of treaties such as the Henderson Purchase which was really an illegal land sale according to English Law.
This agreement was designed to cause the Ani-Yun-Wiya to deed extensive lands to a group of financers known as the Transylvania Company. This area included all the territory embraced by the Ohio, Kentucky, and Cumberland rivers as a means to establish a 14th Colony called Transylvania.
Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni opposed this land purchase of the area known to the Ani-Yun-Wiya as Ken-Tahteh or as it translates to "Land of Tomorrow" or "Meadowland."
Dragging Canoe told the white man that the land they wished to settle would prove to be to them a Dark and Bloody Ground, and it indeed did become known as an area in which many battles were fought.
In 1775 the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals was signed, and this agreement proved to be the breaking point for many. The people opposed to these circumstances chose to leave rather than agree to its demands.
The area of Sycamore Shoals was a very well known area to the Ani-Yun-Wiya for both trade and commerce with the Creek.
This location is just up river from a place known as McCathern Springs which is located near the Doe River in this historical area.
The traditionals made the choice to denounce the terms of this treaty to avoid being forced to capitulate to demands that they refused to live under. Under the leadership of Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni these folks then chose to resist by making war on their enemies.
This resulted in a very powerful Confederacy of Tribes under his leadership and he quickly became the most deadly enemy of the Anglo-Americans that they ever encountered on this continent.
Some leaders, such as Springfrog who was otherwise known as Dustu, were also present at these councils and could see well in advance the coming trouble.
Around this time he began to encourage others to move westward as a means of protecting the people and preserving their ancient culture.
Dustu was was known to have foreseen the coming forced removal that was imminent. Those that followed him were mostly fullbloods.
He was in fact the Grandson of Raven of Chota.
Raven in turn was the son of Caulunna leader of the Seven Clans, and Nancy Moytoy.
The Ani-Yun-Wiya of this large extended group were among the first to re-locate West of the Mississippi.
Dustu or Tooantuh as he was also known was the nephew of Hanging Maw who was his mother's brother.
Around 1775, the Ani-Yun-Wiya drove off the French lead miners from Missouri Territory and soon began to carry out revenge raids for attacks on their camps by the Osage which resulted in a 60 year war ending in 1835.
In May of 1776, a northern delegation of tribes consisting of Iroquois, Mohawks, Ottawa, Nantucas, Shawnee & Delawares arrived at Chota after a 70 day journey to plea for assistance in resisting the white man.
Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni was selected by these tribes as their leader in an organized resistance.
A grand council was held in the Capitol City of Chota where everyone came dressed in their war regalia and painted themselves black. The Mohawks presented him with a belt of wampum signifying the alliance. Then the Ottawa presented theirs which was also received.
Raven of Chota then was given the wampum belt of the Nantucas and the Delawares. The Shawnee then presented theirs to Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni which he accepted and the declaration of war against the settlers was confirmed.
A group of Ani-Yun-Wiya with some British Tories attacked South Carolina in June. In July of this year, Nancy Ward who was known as the War Woman, warned settlers by letter that Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni was about to attack Ft. Watauga, Eton Station and the Holston Settlements.
This resulted in the American soldiers at these locations being warned of the coming attack which resulted in the loss of the strategy that was dependant on surprise.
This warning to the colonists at the Eton Station caused the advantage of surprise to be diminished and no doubt contributed to the attackers being unable to take the fort.
The leaders in the meantime were now aware that they had been betrayed, yet they still attacked the Holston River settlements including Eton Station with 700 warriors, and Raven of Chota then follwed in an attack on Carter's Valley, and Old Abram then attacked Ft. Watauga.
Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni attacked the settlements and was consequently shot and wounded through both of his legs. His brother Little Owl was also shot in the battle and soon the Tsalagi ceased the attack due to its failure.
Soon after these battles, Oconostota and several other elder chiefs offered a bounty of 100 pounds on his head. This inspired him to move near the Chattanooga area and was soon joined by others from the lower towns.
These raids resulted in a series of attacks with the help of the Upper Creeks on settlements in Tennessee and Alabama. Consequently, John Sevier and his militia traveled deep into their Territory and burned villages in retribution.
It has been said by historians that the persistance of the Tsalagi in attacking the Americans greatly prolonged the Revolutionary War. In fact the Continental Congress ordered troops from North & South Carolina and Virginia to attack the Ani-Yun-Wiya.
During this time the Colonists decimated over 50 towns and murdered and killed many innocents despite the assistance of Nancy Ward.
Rather than kill all the captured, Americans began setting up slave auctions and sold women and children to the highest bidder to raise money for their militia.
Regardless of the denouncing of the traditionals as renegades by the Civil Chiefs, the Americans continued to attack Villages despite this knowledge.
In 1777, Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni began gathering warriors among many tribes to form a confederacy. This was the begining of perhaps the largest movement of resistance in all of America's past.
Around 1779, warriors went to Georgia to support the British. During the absence of most of the fighters, Commander Shelby of Virginia then attacked the lower towns.
In 1779, Shelby led a militia force to destroy the resistance.
Shelby came down the Tennessee River with his militia force to engage hostiles.
The Virginians captured a man that was fishing for some food, and Shelby forced the captured fisherman to guide them to the main headquarters.
The troops surprised the village and destroyed it. Apparently most of the warriors were elsewhere and somewhere around 40 people were killed. Shelby then continued down the creek and destroyed many other places.
Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni soon learned of the attacks on his villages and quickly returned to assess the damage. The Shawnee also came to the area with the desire to know if the resistance had been broken by the burning of the towns.
At this time he then assured the Shawnee that the resistance was very much in tact and that the Ani-Yun-Wiya would continue to fight where he then told them..."We are not yet conquered!"
Warriors then went with the Shawnee to fight with them in their battles as a means to consolidate their alliance.
In return, some Shawnees including the famous Tecumseh and the Prophet came to learn the art of war from Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni.
Dragging Canoe then made the choice to move to the west side of Lookout Mountain. This area was even more inaccessible than the east side and afforded him extraordinary protection from his enemies.
In the year 1780, tribes among the Delaware, Miami, Shawnee, Sauk & Fox, Creeks, & Chickasaw among numerous other tribes also joined in league as a means to resist the encroaching white man.
Seven new villages were built to live in, these towns were known as Crawfish, Ocee (also known as the White River), Red Clay, Lookout, Chestua, Running Water, & Crow Village.
Meanwhile the Spanish were much pleased to have the Ani-Yun-Wiya drive off the French from the major rivers, and as a result they befriended the Tsalagi and made overtures and gave gifts of powder, guns and other important resources.
These events severely damaged the trade of the French in the Gulf Coast area. As a result, The Kingdom of Spain was overwhelmed with elation and made peace with the Ani-Yun-Wiya.
As a result of these things, the Spanish offered land as a means to encourage the Tsalagi to pursuade the French to leave the continent altogether.
The French were greatly afraid of the Ani-Yun-Wiya, and usually fled just at the mention of the possibility that they were nearby. France was well aware of what excellent and tenacious warriors made up the people of the Seven Clans.
In 1782, John Sevier led a militia deep into Tsalagi lands in an attempt to kill Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni.
This campaign resulted in what has become known as the First Battle of Lookout Mountain.
This battle has also gone down as the last battle of the American Revolution.
The Tassel, head chief of the nation, admitted his inability to restrain Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni, and advised General Martin to go against the lower towns and burn them, so that the people in the lower towns would be forced to return and submit to his control.
This resulted in a campaign of North Carolina Militia making an expedition which proved to be a disasterous event.
After realizing that his troops were about to be slaughtered due to the natural lay of the land, General Martin then ordered a retreat where the Militia then returned back home.
In 1785 after the Treaty of Hopewell, Springfrog and many other families dissatisified with the agreement began descending the Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers in their Canoes, they then reached and ascended the St. Francis into the Spanish provinces of Louisiana where they formed a settlement.
In 1788, a Headman known as Toquo, or Turkey petitioned Don Manuel Perez who was the Governor of Spanish Illinois in St. Louis to grant refuge in the territory of the great King of Spain.
In spite of their fear, Don Esteban Miro Governor of Louisiana approved the emigration of no less than six viliages.
Springfrog and other important leaders first settled in Missouri near a place called Mine de Mota which was near the location of the lead mines. He then later moved to the White River and many others soon followed and began living there via the permission of the Spanish Government.
From time to time these were joined by other families from the east, where they numbered between two and three thousand people prior to the treaty of 1817.
Soon after arriving in the area, disputes broke out in an all out war with the Osage and the Quapaw. At one particular time after the Wassasi had attacked Springfrog's village, it was reported that he then tracked the war party for several hundred miles and killed the entire raiding party that had dared to attack his settlement.
In 1791 a combined force of Ani-Yun-Wiya, Creek, Chippewa, Shawnee, Delaware, Iroquois, Miami, Wyandot & Dakota Sioux totally annihilated the forces of American Gen. Arthur St. Clair at the Wabash River.
This has since become known as St. Clair's Defeat. This proved to be the worst defeat for the United States Army by the hands of Native Americans.
In February of 1792, Chief Glass and Dragging Canoe's brother, Turtle At Home, waylaid the John Collingsworth family near Nashville, killing the father, mother, and a daughter, and capturing an eight-year-old girl.
Returning to Lookout Town, they held a scalp dance with Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni grinding one of the scalps in his teeth as he danced. He had recently returned from Mississippi after meeting with the Choctaws, and he apparently celebrated the occasion so strenuously that he died the following morning at around 54 years of age.
Leadership was then passed to John Watts who managed to keep the Confederacy together for two more years. The Tsalagi during this period were relentless in attacking American Settlements and making war with the Tennessee Militia.
On August 20, 1794, General "Mad" Anthony Wayne and his Legion of the United States met and defeated the confederated tribes, led by Weyapiersenwah (Blue Jacket) of the Shawnee and Michikinikwa (Little Turtle), at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The British failed to support their allies during this battle which caused resentment.
After this war the Ani-Yun-Wiya fighting along with the Ohio Shawnee then returned home to Tennessee.
The warriors continued waging war on American settlements until 1794 when the Lower Towns were burned for the final time by Americans.
After 1794, the majority of these folks began arriving in the Territory instead of returning back east.
The Migration was complete by 1799 and open warfare between the Ani-Yun-Wiya and Americans ended.